Geschiedenis van 'kaarsen maken'

History of 'candle making'

Candlelight has played a major role in the history of the candle over the centuries. One can go back to the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tut-Anch-Amun. Remains of what could with some good will be called candles were found here. The candle also proved to be very important in Roman times. For example, the Roman writer Apuleius made a systematic distinction between "sebacei" - tallow candles and "cerei" - wax candles. Italy was probably the birthplace of the candle. The use of this light source here goes back to the Etruscans. Constantine, the first Christian emperor, used candles at Easter ceremonies, among other things. King Alfred the Great (849-899) had timekeeping candles made from beeswax. Six of these candles burned out in 24 hours. In the Middle Ages there were golden times for candlelight and for candle makers. Powerful guilds were founded all over Europe. At that time, candles were made by immersing a number of flax or cotton wicks, which hung some distance away on a stick, into melted fat or wax. These actions were repeated until the candles had the desired thickness. Around 1800, casting molds were also used. The problem was that the candles were difficult to remove. Beeswax candles were intended exclusively for the nobles and religious purposes. The bourgeoisie had to make do with cheaper tallow or tallow candles. The fire quality at that time left much to be desired. The candles were quite soft due to their raw materials. They smoked, sooted, dripped and even smelled. The charred end of the pit had to be cut off or snuffed from time to time. The candles lit up the world, the long night of many Middle Ages and then the lighter night of the Renaissance and Enlightenment. Louis the Fourteenth had candle festivals organized at his court. Here a candle was never allowed to be lit a second time. The remains were the ruin for the courtiers and ladies-in-waiting. Cabeceras invented the braided wick in 1820. This consisted of a braid of three strands of an equal number of cotton threads. It replaced the previously poorly burning wick. The burning properties of the candle improved significantly. The French chemist Chevreul (1786-1889) showed in 1826 that oils and fats are chemical compounds of a liquid (glycerine) and more or less solid substances (fatty acids). He succeeded in separating a fatty acid mixture by pressing into a liquid fraction (olein) and a solid, hard fraction (stearin). The old spread and wax candles made way for stearin candles. Two young French doctors, De Milly and Motard, who carried out this splitting with lime in 1831, brought the matter to an end in the right direction. Despite this, their stearin candle factory was making losses. De Milly continued to pour candles in Paris and Motard left for Berlin to start a factory making stearin candles. De Milly succeeded in achieving an almost complete separation of fatty acid and glycerin in 1852. With this he laid the foundation for the manufacture of stearin and stearin candles. An additional advantage was the fact that the new raw material for candles turned out to be suitable for being machine-cast into moulds. Before that, fat and wax candles were almost exclusively manufactured in a primitive way by dipping. It led to mechanization and factory industries. At the end of the 19th century, a white substance was obtained from the refining of crude oil; paraffin. This material also turned out to be particularly suitable as a raw material for candles. Even in these modern times, candles are indispensable. With their warm light they always create a cozy atmosphere. They provide a peaceful atmosphere for a meditative moment and chase away the darkness. Candles currently come in many shapes, colors and even scents. For every occasion or mood. Even magical powers are attributed to it.
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